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If you have difficulty coughing, you can take expectorant drugs, such as ACC, mukaltin, broncholithin, etc. You should not take drugs that suppress the cough reflex on your own (without consulting a doctor) - this can be dangerous. Antibiotics should not be used. Antibiotics are completely powerless against viruses, they are used only when bacterial complications occur. Therefore, you should not use antibiotics without a doctor's prescription, no matter how much you would like to. These are drugs that are not safe for the body. In addition, uncontrolled use of antibiotics leads to the emergence of resistant forms of bacteria. First of all, it is important to prevent viruses from entering the mucous membranes of the nose, eyes or mouth. To do this, it is necessary to limit contact with sick people. In addition, it must be remembered that viruses can linger for some time on the personal hygiene items of a sick person, as well as on various surfaces in the room where he is. Therefore, it is important to wash your hands after contact with objects that may harbor viruses.
You should also not touch your nose, eyes, mouth with dirty hands.
It should be noted that soap certainly does not kill influenza viruses. Washing hands with soap and water causes the mechanical removal of microorganisms from the hands, which is quite enough. As for the various disinfectant hand lotions, there is no convincing evidence that the substances they contain have a detrimental effect on viruses. Therefore, the use of such lotions for the prevention of colds is completely unjustified. In addition, the risk of catching SARS directly depends on immunity, i.e. the body's resistance to infections.
It is necessary to maintain normal immunity. Eat properly and nutritiously. food should contain a sufficient amount of proteins, fats and carbohydrates, as well as vitamins. In the autumn-spring period, when the amount of vegetables and fruits in the diet decreases, an additional intake of a vitamin complex is possible. Exercise regularly, preferably outdoors, including brisk walking. Be sure to follow the rest regimen. Adequate rest and proper sleep are extremely important aspects for maintaining normal immunity. Avoid stress. Quit smoking. Smoking is a powerful factor that reduces immunity, which has a negative impact on both the overall resistance to infectious diseases and the local protective barrier - in the nasal mucosa, trachea, and bronchi.
Vaccination is carried out with vaccines created against viruses circulating in the previous winter, so its effectiveness depends on how close those viruses are to the present.
- Flu vaccines are updated annually. However, it is known that with repeated vaccinations, the effectiveness increases.
- This is due to the fact that the formation of antibodies - protective antiviral proteins - in previously vaccinated people is faster.
- Currently, 3 types of vaccines have been developed.
- Whole virion vaccines - vaccines that are whole influenza virus - live or inactivated. Now these vaccines are practically not used, because they have a number of side effects and often cause disease.
- Split vaccines are split vaccines containing only part of the virus. They have significantly fewer side effects and are recommended for adult vaccination.
- Subunit vaccines are highly purified vaccines that cause little or no side effects. May be used in children. When is the best time to get vaccinated?
It is best to vaccinate in advance, before the development of the epidemic - from September to December.
It is also possible to vaccinate during an epidemic, but it must be borne in mind that immunity is formed inwithin 7-15 days, during which it is best to carry out additional prophylaxis with antiviral agents - for example, rimantadine. As already mentioned, for greater safety, it is better to use the most purified subunit vaccines. Local reactions in the form of redness disappear in 1-2 days. General reactions. fever, malaise, chills, muscle pain. They are quite rare and also disappear within 1-2 days. Allergy to vaccine components. It must be remembered that the vaccine should not be administered to people with intolerance to chicken protein, since vaccine viruses are grown using this protein, and vaccines contain traces of it. If you are allergic to influenza vaccines, you should not vaccinate later.
Emergency prevention of influenza. In the event of an outbreak in a closed community or during an influenza epidemic, the effectiveness of vaccination is significantly reduced, since it takes at least 1-2 weeks to form full-fledged immunity. Therefore, if vaccination has not been carried out, especially in people at risk, it is advisable to take prophylactic antiviral agents.